Kathmandu is the capital and largest metropolitan city of Nepal. The city is the urban core of the Kathmandu Valley in the Himalayas, which also contains two sister cities namely Patan or Lalitpur, 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) to its southeast (an ancient city of fine arts and crafts) and Bhaktapur, 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) to its east (city of devotees). It is also acronymed as 'KTM' and named 'tri-city'.Kathmandu valley is only slightly smaller than Singapore in terms of area.

The city stands at an elevation of approximately 1,400 metres (4,600 ft) in the bowl-shaped valley in central Nepal surrounded by four major mountains, namely: Shivapuri, Phulchowki, Nagarjun and Chandragiri. It is inhabited by 671,846 (2001) people. The Kathmandu valley with its three districts including Kathmandu District accounts for a population density of only 97 per km2 whereas Kathmandu metropolitan city has a density of 13,225 per km2. It is by far the largest urban agglomerate in Nepal, accounting for 20% of the urban population in an area of 5,067 hectares (12,520 acres) (50.67 square kilometres (19.56 sq mi)).
Kathmandu is not only the capital of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal but also the headquarters of the Central Region (Madhyamanchal) among the five development regions constituted by the 14 administrative zones of Nepal located at the central part of the country. The Central region has three zones namely, Bagmati, Narayani and Janakpur. Kathmandu is located in the Bagmati Zone.

Kathmandu, as the gateway to Nepal Tourism, is the nerve centre of the country’s economy. With the most advanced infrastructure among urban areas in Nepal, Kathmandu's economy is tourism centric accounting for 3.8% of the GDP in 1995-96 (had declined since then due to political unrest but has picked up again).

The city’s rich history is nearly 2000 years old, as inferred from an inscription in the valley. Its religious affiliations are dominantly Hindu followed by Buddhism. People of other religious beliefs also live in Kathmandu giving it a cosmopolitan culture. Nepali is the common language of the city, though many speak the Nepal Bhasa Newari as it is the center of the Newar (meaning: citizens of Nepal) people and culture. English is understood by all of the educated population of the city. The literacy rate is 98% in the city.

Kathmandu is now the premier cultural and economic hub of Nepal and is considered to have the most advanced infrastructure among urban areas in Nepal. From the point of view of tourism, economy and cultural heritage, the sister cities of Patan(lalitpur) and Bhaktapur are integral to Kathmandu. Even the cultural heritage recognition under the World Heritage list of the UNESCO has recognized all the monuments in the three urban agglomerates as one unit under the title “Kathmandu Valley-UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The city of Kathmandu is named after a structure in Durbar Square called the Kasthamandap.Kathmandu is also sometimes called "Kantipur". "Kanti" is an alternate name of the Goddess Lakshmi, and "pur" means the place where such a goddess resides. Thus, the name Kantipur demonstrates the ancient belief that it is the place where Lakshmi dwells.

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Durbar Square

The literal meaning of Durbar Square is a place of palaces. There are three preserved Durbar Squares in Kathmandu valley and one unpreserved in Kirtipur.

The Durbar Square of Kathmandu is located in the old city and has heritage buildings representing four kingdoms (Kantipur, Lalitpur, Bhaktapur, Kirtipur), built over centuries, the earliest being the Licchavi dynasty. There were further additions and refurbishments during the reign of Mallas (9th century) and then the Ranas. The complex has 50 temples and is distributed in two quadrangles of the Durbar Square. The outer quadrangle has the Kasthamandap, Kumari Ghar and Shiva-Parvati Temple while the inner quadrangle has the Hanuman dhoka and the main palace.


Kasthamandap is a three storied temple enshrining the deity of Goraknath - (Sanskrit for Gau+Raksha+Nath: Cow+Protect+Lord; The Lord who protects cows) - a form of the god Shiva. It was built in the 16th century in Pagoda style. It is said to be one of the oldest wooden buildings in the world. The name of Kathmandu is a derivative of the Kashtamandap. It was built under the reign of King Laxmi Narsingha Malla and an interesting legend is stated to its wooden construction. The story narrated is about Gorakhnath, a disciple of Machindranath (Nepal Bhasa: Janamaadya) Gorakhnath, who was spotted by a tantrik in human form, during the chariot procession of his guru Machhindranath (Nepal Bhasa: Janamaadya). The tantrik held him under a spell and sought his help seeking materials to build a temple in Kathmandu. Once the boon was bestowed, a huge tree started growing at the location where the present temple exists. With the wood of this single tree, the tantrik built the Kastamantap temple. Once a year a huge ceremony is performed in the temple. On that day people gather around the temple, and they stay up all night. This temple is one of the major tourist attractions too. There are no restrictions on entry to the temple. However, photography is prohibited inside the temple. The temple is open after midday until midnight.

Hanuman Dhoka

Hanuman Dhoka is a complex of structures with the Royal Palace of the Malla kings and also of the Shah dynasty. It is spread over five acres. The eastern wing with ten courtyards is the oldest part dated to the mid 16th century. It was expanded by King Pratap Malla in the 17th century with many temples. Sundari Chowk and Mohan Chowk in the north part of the palace are both closed. In 1768, in the southeast part of the palace, four lookout towers were added by Prithvi Narayan Shah. The royal family lived in this palace till 1886, where after they shifted to Narayanhiti Palace. The stone inscription outside is in fifteen languages and legend states that if all the 15 are read milk would spring from the middle of stone tablet.

Kumari Ghar

Kumari Ghar is a palace in the center of the Kathmandu city, next to the Durbar square where a Royal Kumari selected from several Kumaris from several places resides. Kumari, or Kumari Devi, is the tradition of worshipping young pre-pubescent girls as manifestations of the divine female energy or devi in South Asian countries. In Nepal the selection process for her is very rigorous. Kumari is believed to be the bodily incarnation of the goddess Taleju (the Nepalese name for Durga) until she menstruates, after which it is believed that the goddess vacates her body. Serious illness or a major loss of blood from an injury are also causes for her to revert to common status. The current Royal Kumari, Matina Shakya, aged four, was installed in October 2008 by the Maoist government that replaced the monarchy

PashupatiNath Temple

The Pashupatinath Temple is the largest Hindu temple of Lord Shiva (Pashupati) in the world and regarded as the most sacred. Located on the banks of the Bagmati River in the eastern part of Kathmandu, Pashupatinath Temple is the oldest Hindu temple in Kathmandu and was established in the 5th century,and served as the seat of national deity, Lord Pashupatinath, until Nepal was secularized. However, a significant part of the temple was destroyed by Mughal invaders in the 14th century and little or nothing remains of the original 5th century temple exterior. The temple as it stands today was built in the nineteenth century, although the image of the bull and the black four headed image of Pashupati are at least 300 years old.The temple is listed in UNESCO World Heritage Sites list.. Shivaratri or the night of Lord Shiva is the most important festival, attracting thousands of devotees 
Believers in Pashupatinath (mainly Hindus) are allowed to enter the temple premises but non-Hindu visitors are allowed to view the temple from the across the bank of Bagmati river. The priests who perform the services at this temple have been Brahmins from South India since the time of Malla king Yaksha Malla.This tradition is believed to have been started at the request of Adi Shankaracharya who sought to unify the different states of Bharatam (Unified India) by encouraging cultural exchange. This procedure is also followed in other temples around India, which were sanctified by Adi Shankaracharya.

The temple is built in the pagoda style of architecture, with cubic constructions, beautifully carved wooden rafters on which they rest (tundal) and two level roofs made of copper and gilded in gold. It has four main doors, all covered with silver sheets and the western door has a statue of large bull or Nandi, again covered in gold. The deity is of black stone, about 6 feet in height and the same in circumference.


The Boudhanath, (also written Bouddhanath, Bodhnath, Baudhanath or the Khāsa Chaitya), is one of the holiest Buddhist sites in Nepal along with Swayambhunath, and it is one of the most popular tourist sites in the Kathmandu area. It is known as Khāsti by Newars and as Bauddha or Bodh-nāth by modern speakers of Nepali. Located about 11 km (7 mi) from the center and northeastern outskirts of Kathmandu, the stupa's massive mandala makes it one of the largest spherical stupas in Nepal.[70] Boudhanath became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1979.

The Gopālarājavaṃśāvalī documents that the Boudhanath was founded by the Nepalese Licchavi king Śivadeva (c. 590-604 CE); though other Nepalese chronicles date it to the reign of King Mānadeva (464-505 CE).Tibetan sources claim a mound on the site was excavated in the late 15th or early 16th century and the bones of king Aṃshuvarmā 605–621 were discovered there while other Nepali sources claim it was constructed by a prince to seek forgiveness for unwittingly killing his own father .However, the Emperor of the Tibetan Empire, Trisong Detsän (r. 755 to 797) is also traditionally associated with the construction of the Boudhanath Stupa, after Songsten Gampo was converted to Buddhism by his wives the Nepali princess Bhrikuti Devi and Princess Wen Cheng of China in the seventh century and passes it on to Detsän.[75] However, given that Kathmandu was invaded by the Mughals in the fourteenth century who would have destroyed the monument, the current stupa is believed to date to sometime after this.

The base of the stupa has 108 small depictions of the Dhyani Buddha Amitabha and is surrounded with a brick wall with 147 niches, each with four or five prayer wheels engraved with the mantra, om mani padme hum.At the northern entrance where visitors must pass is a shrine dedicated to the goddess of smallpox, Ajima. The stupa attracts many Tibetan Buddhist pilgrims annually who perform full body prostrations in the inner lower enclosure, circumambulate the stupa with prayer wheels and chant and pray. Thousands of prayer flags are hoisted up from the top of the stupa downwards and dot the parameters of the complex. The influx of large populations of Tibetan refugees from China has seen the construction of over 50 Tibetan Gompas (Monasteries) around Boudhanath


Swayambhunath, also known as the Monkey Temple as there are holy monkeys living in parts of the temple in the north-west, is among the oldest religious sites in Nepal. Although the site is considered Buddhist, the place is revered by both Buddhists and Hindus. Numerous kings, Hindu followers, are known to have paid their homage to the temple, including Pratap Malla, the powerful king of Kathmandu, who is responsible for the construction of the eastern stairway in the 17th century. According to the Gopālarājavaṃśāvalī Swayambhunath was founded by the great-grandfather of King Mānadeva (464-505 CE), King Vṛsadeva, about the beginning of the 5th century CE. This seems to be confirmed by a damaged stone inscription found at the site, which indicates that King Mānadeva ordered work done in 640 CE. However, Emperor Ashoka is said to have visited the site in the third century BCE and built a temple on the hill, which was later destroyed. Legend has it that the Buddha himself visited Swayambhunath and gave teachings there two hundred years earlier.

The stupa consists of a dome at the base. Above the dome, there is a cubical structure present with eyes of Buddha looking in all four directions with the word "unity" in the main Nepali dialect between them. There are pentagonal Toran present above each of the four sides with statues engraved in them. Behind and above the torana there are thirteen tiers. Above all the tiers, there is a small space above which the Gajur is present.

Changu Narayan

Changu Narayan is an ancient Hindu temple located near the village of Changunarayan in the Kathmandu Valley on top of a hill at the eastern end of the valley. Its location is 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) to the north of Bhakathapur and 22 kilometres (14 mi) from Kathmandu. The temple is one of the oldest Hindu temples of the valley, and is believed to have been constructed first in the 4th century. Changu Narayan is the name of Vishnu, and the temple is dedicated to him. A stone slab discovered in the vicinity of the temple dates to the 5th century, and is the oldest such stone inscription discovered in Nepal. It was rebuilt after the old temple was devastated. Many stone sculptures here date to the Licchavi period. Changu Narayan Temple is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.

The temple is a double-roofed structure where the idol of Lord Vishnu in his incarnation as Narayana is deified. The exquisitely built temple has intricate roof struts showing multi-armed Tantric deities. A kneeling image of Garuda (dated to the 5th century), the vahana or vehicle of Vishnu with a snake around its neck, faces the temple. The gilded door depicts stone lions guarding the temple. Gilded windows also flank the door. A conch and a disc, symbols of Vishnu, are carved on the two pillars at the entrance. Non-Hindus are not allowed inside the temple


Dharahara, also known as the Bhimsen Tower is a nine story (50.2 metres (165 ft)) tall tower in the center of Kathmandu. It was originally built in 1832 by the Prime Minister of the time, Bhimsen Thapa, under the command of Queen Lalit Tripura Sundari. It survived an earthquake just two years after construction in 1834, but on January 15, 1934, another earthquake destroyed the tower and it was then rebuilt by the prime minister of the time, Juddha Shumsher, who renovated Dharahara to its previous form.

The tower has a spiral staircase inside containing 113 steps or none because there is an elevator. The 8th floor holds a circular balcony for observers that provides a panoramic view of the whole Kathmandu valley. The tower has a 5.2 metres (17 ft)) bronze mast on the roof. The tower has been open for the general public since 2005 for a small fee.


The National Museum is located in the western part of Kathmandu near the Swoyambhunath stupa in the historical building which was constructed in early 19th century by General Bhimsen Thapa. It is the most important museum in the country, housing an extensive collection of weapons, art and antiquities of historic and cultural importance. The museum was established in 1928 as a collection house of war trophies and weapons, and the initial name of this museum was Chhauni Silkhana, which literally means "the stone house of arms and ammunition". Given its focus, the museum contains an extensive quantity of weapons, including locally made firearms used in various wars and leather canons[disambiguation needed] from the 18th-19th century and medieval and modern works in wood, bronze, stone, and paintings.

The Natural History Museum is located in the southern foothills of Swoyambhunath hill and has a sizeable collection of different species of animals, butterflies and plants. The museum is noted in particular for its serial display of diverse life species from prehistoric shells to the stuffed animals, birds, crocodiles and many others.

The Tribhuvan Museum contains artifacts related to the King Tribhuvan (1906–1955). It has a variety of pieces including his personal belongings, letters and papers and memorabilia related to events he was involved in and a rare collection of photos and paintings of Royal family members. The Mahendra Museum is also dedicated to a king, Mahendra (1920–1972 ). Like the Tribhuvan Museum, it includes his personal belongings such as decorations, stamps and coins and personal notes and manuscripts, but it also has structural reconstructions of his cabinet room and office chamber.

The Hanumandhoka Palace, a lavish medieval palace complex in the Durbar, contains three separate museums of historic importance, including the Birendra museum containing items related to the current monarch, King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah, including royal dress worn during various state and historic occasions, medals and honorary titles received from other head of states and many more.

 काठमाण्डौ नेपालको राजधानी तथा सबैभन्दा ठुलो शहर हो र नेपालको यो एक मात्र माहानगरपालीक हो , प्रागएतीहासीक इतिहास भएको यो शहर लाइ कान्तीपुर पनी भनीन्छ इतिहासका बिभिन्न कालखणडमा बिभिन्न बंसले शासन गरेको यो शहर राजा पृथ्वीनरायण शाह ले गोरखा बाट आफ्नो राजधानी सारे देखीयता बर्तमान नेपालको राजधनीको रूपमा रहेको छ ।

काठमाण्डौ उपत्यका भित्रपर्ने यो शहरमा नेपालको सरकारको केन्द्रीय सचिवालय सिहंदरवार, मन्त्रालय हरू, प्राय सबै केन्द्रीय कायर्लय हरू, नारायणीहीटी राजदरवार, सरकारी तथा निजी टेलीभीजन स्टेसन हरू थुप्रै सरकारी तथा निजी रेडीयोहरू तथा समाचार संस्था हरू रहेका छन ।

यस्का साथै बिश्वसंपदा सुचीमा सुचीकृत एतिहासीक बसन्तपुर दरवार, पसुपतीनाथ मन्दीर, बौद्धनाथ स्तुपा र श्वयंभुनाथ स्तुपा समेत यसै सहरमा रहेका छन । चिकित्सा शास्त्र अध्यान संस्थान माहाराजगंज, अमृत साइन्स,त्रिचन्द्र,रत्न राज्य, नेपाल ल, बाल्मीकी बिधापिठ, सरस्वती, पब्लीक युथ,रत्न ज्योती, महेन्द्ररत्न, नेपाल कर्मस क्यम्पस, जनप्रसासन क्याम्पस महेन्द्र संस्कृत बिश्वविधालय काठमाण्डौ कार्यलय, नेपाल मेडीकल कलेज, काठमाण्डौ डेन्टल कलेज, राष्ट्रीय चिकीत्सा अध्यान प्रतिष्ठान विरअस्पताल लगायत अन्य थुप्रै सरकारी तथा निजी शैक्षीक संस्था यो शहरमा छन । नेपाल का केन्द्रीय अस्पतालहरू विर अस्पताल, सहिद गंगालाल राष्ट्रीय ह्रदयरोग केन्द्र, सहिद शुक्रराज सरूवा रोग नियन्त्रण अस्पताल, नेपाल आंखा अस्पताल त्रिपुरेश्वर, तिलगंगा आंखाकेन्द्र, कुष्ठरोग अस्पताल टोखा नेपाली सेनाका त्रिचन्द्र अस्पताल वीरेन्द्र सैनिक अस्पताल, पायोनीएर अस्पताल शसस्त्र प्रहरीको ज्ञानेन्द्र शसस्त्र प्रहरी अस्पताल, नेपाल प्रहरीको वीरेन्द्र प्रहरी अस्पताल, त्रिभुवन विश्वदिधालय चिकित्सासास्त्र अध्यान संस्थानको शिक्षण अस्पताल माहाराज गंज, नेपाल मेडीकल कलेज शिक्षण अस्पताल सिनामंगल, आयुर्वेदीक अस्पताल नरदेवी, सुस्माकोइराला पल्लास्टीक सर्जरी अस्पताल सांखु का साथै नर्भीक, मेडीकेएर, काठमाण्डौ मोडेल, एभरेष्ठ लगतयका प्रशिद्ध थुप्र प्राइभेट तथा सामुदायीक अस्पताल हरू पनी याहां रहेका छन । नेपाली सेनाको केन्द्रीय कार्यलय जंगी अड्डा , शस्सत्र प्रहरी बलको प्रधान कार्यलय तथा नेपाल प्रहरीको केन्द्रीय कार्यलय पनी यहिरहेका छन, मुलुक को यौटै मात्र त्रिभुवन अन्तराष्ट्रय विमानस्थल काठमाण्डौमै रहेको छ । साथै बिभिन्न प्राइभेट कम्पनी हरूका केन्द्रीय कार्यलय केही कारखाना हरू का साथै बालाजु औधोगीक क्षेत्र र थुप्रै बिक्री केन्द्र यांहा रहेका छन । काठमाण्डौको टेलीफोनकोड ०१ हो । यो शहरमा झन्डै ८ लाख मानीस बसोबास गर्दछन ।